TOK Foundations

“If a little knowledge is dangerous, where is the man who has so much as to be out of danger?”
― Thomas Henry Huxley

“When you can believe in one stupid thing then all stupid things become available to you.”
— Pradeep Satyaprakash

“Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?”

― T.S. Eliot, The Rock

“The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, and wiser people so full of doubts.” – Bertrand Russell

Marcel Proust wrote:

Our intellect is not the most subtle, the most powerful, the most appropriate instrument for revealing the truth. It is life that, little by little, example by example, permits us to see that what is most important to our heart, or to our mind, is learned not by reasoning, but through other agencies. Then it is that the intellect, observing their superiority, abdicates its control to them upon reasoned grounds and agrees to become their collaborator and lackey.

“It Ain’t What You Don’t Know That Gets You Into Trouble. It’s What You Know for Sure That Just Ain’t So”

-Mark Twain (but probably not)

“Great doubt, great awakening. Little doubt, little awakening. No doubt, no awakening.” -Zen maxim

“We can understand things better. We can never understand things fully”
— David Deutsch

“Beware of false knowledge; it is more dangerous than ignorance.”

-George Bernard Shaw

The Curse of Knowledge

TOK Image

Getting Started

Knowledge vs. Belief

Definitions of Knowledge

Knowledge is “justified, true belief.” – Plato

Knowledge is useful information, by which we mean knowledge that solves a problem.

-Karl Popper (paraphrasing)



Personal vs. Shared Knowledge

Curse of Knowledge

Pencil tapping

Pinker article

Plato and the Cave

Fake News

There is probably no topic more relevant today than

What is the relationship between technology and knowledge? Truth?

What kinds of claims are subject to fake news?

“Tappers and Listeners” … An Excerpt From One Of My Favorite Communications Books and a Story I Tell Clients Often


Knowledge vs Belief


Problems of knowing